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Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research

The Art of Case Study Research: Robert E. Stake: 9780803957671:...
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Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research

Case study designs have been used across a number of disciplines, particularly the social sciences, education, business, law, and health, to address a wide range of research questions. Since some states and the agi surveys do not separate abortions in cases of threat to the mothers life from abortions in cases of threat to the mothers health, these are both included in the maternal health figures below. In connection with the increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (art) is increased use of abortion to selectively reduce the number of fetuses in multifetal pregnancies.

It is widely acknowledged that such cases are rare however, available data suggest that some commonly cited figures are exaggerated. Note the south dakota questionnaire allows respondents to indicate multiple reasons, so numbers add to more than total abortions. Thus, rape-related abortion data interpretation is hampered by the particularly traumatic circumstances of such cases.

If the agi figure for 1987 is correct, it would imply that 15,600 abortions in 1987 were for such cases. For cases of threat to the mothers life, despite the factor of 7 range in state-level percentages among the three states, the derived national estimates are quite consistent, in the range 0. In choosing a methodological position, careful consideration of the different case study approaches is required to determine the design that best addresses the aim of the study, and that aligns with the researchers worldview.

Partial-birth abortion roughly corresponding to what the medical community describes as intact dilation and extraction. For abortions in cases of fetal health issues, the derived national estimates from state data are all lower than the agi-based estimates by at least a factor of 4. This illustrates the consequences of the current extreme policy in the united states regarding abortion.

Stewart and trussell extrapolate this to 25,000 per year in 1998 merely by considering lower crime rates. Mcmahon further indicated that elective abortions comprised 20 of those he performed after 21 weeks gestation, and none of those he performed after 26 weeks. Central to these variations is the underpinning ontological and epistemological orientations of those involved in the evolution of case study research.

March 1997, abortion rights leader urges end to half truths, national right to life, 1996, for what reasons are partial-birth abortions usually performed?, sprang, m. Validity of research results are verified through the scrutiny of others and, as such, adherence to mechanisms that ensure rigor in data collection and analysis is vital. The alan guttmacher institute (agi) has published several studies examining reasons for abortions in the united states. Prominent case study researchers do however emphasize that an overarching methodology shapes a case study design and that multiple sources of data and methods can be used (merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 yin, 2014), thus providing the distinction between the two. Methods were required that could be used to explore factors such as participants perspectives and the influence of socio-political contexts on curriculum successes and failures (simons, 2009).


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Robert E. Stake, PhD, is a specialist in the evaluation of educational programs and case study methods. He is director of the Center for Instructional Research and ...

Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research

Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations...
Volume 18, No. 1, Art. 19 – January 2017 Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations. Helena Harrison, Melanie Birks, Richard Franklin & Jane ...
Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research The researcher will often categorize qualitative data to create quantitative data that can then be analyzed using statistical methods. Note the nebraska questionnaire allows respondents to indicate multiple reasons, so numbers add to more than total abortions. This renewed interest in qualitative methodology led to a revival in the use of case study in a number of disciplines (anthony & jack, 2009 george & bennett, 2005 johansson, For the states of minnesota, nebraska, south dakota. These elements delineate case study from other forms of research and inform the critical aspects of the research design and execution. To assist in understanding and achieving this alignment, the qualitative case study approaches developed by yin (2014), stake (1995) and merriam (1998, 2009) are explored in the following sections.
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    These higher rates, while somewhat dubious, are required to support the agi claim of 1 of abortions for rape. A third survey conducted in 2000-2001 surveyed abortion seekers about contraceptive use this study provided some limited data relating to reasons for abortions for 10,683 women. They analyzed possible factors (age of mother, birth order, ethnicity) and noted additional parentalenvironmental characteristics that naturally influence the birth ratio. While not a major issue in the united states, abortions for the purpose of selecting the sex of the child are quite common in asia, where they are generally used to abort female fetuses. How the methods are used will vary and depend on the research purpose and design, which is often a variation of a single or multiple case study research design.

    Examples are provided of how these researchers philosophical orientation influences the application of case study in practice. Collective alignment of these elements articulates a justifiable framework for the research study and cultivates trustworthiness and the validity, reliability and credibility of the research findings. A case is selected because it is interesting in itself or can facilitate the understanding of something else it is instrumental in providing insight on an issue (stake, 2006). According to johansson (2003), robert yin followed this progress, and drawing on scientific approaches to research gained from his background in the social sciences, applied experimental logic to naturalistic inquiry, and blended this with qualitative methods, further bridging the methodological gap and strengthening the methodological quality of case study research. Even sex selective abortions may be more common than those for some of the hard cases.

    The overall change in the malefemale birth ratio from 1970 to 2002 represents about 13,000 fewer annual male births by 2002, which would correspond to about 1 of abortions. Denzin and lincoln (2011) emphasize the qualitative essence of case study, while acknowledging its evolution and fluidity with regard to accommodating varied ontologies, epistemologies, methodologies, and methods. Creswell (2014) refers to case studies as a qualitative design, while others use the term case study (flyvbjerg, 2011 stake, 1995, 2006 stewart, 2014), qualitative case study (merriam, 2009), or describe case study as an approach (simons, 2009). The wide range in estimates of unreported rapes is evidence of the problem of quantifying these figures. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researchers preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. This is a far more subjective determination that the previously reviewed cases, a subjectivity partly illustrated by the case of utah where 92. Qualitative paradigms are broad and can encompass exploratory, explanatory, interpretive, or descriptive aims. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. For example, an april 2005 information sheet 7 states that about 13,000 women have abortions following rape or incest. Processes such as descriptive, thematic and content analysis, and triangulation are significant in ensuring the quality of a study, therefore, methods of data collection and analysis need to be organized and systematized with a detailed chain of evidence (merriam, 2009).

    In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case ...

    Reasons given for having abortions in the United States

    Reasons given for having abortions in the United States by Wm. Robert Johnston last updated 18 January 2016. Summary: This report reviews available statistics ...
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    The most notable case studies include thomas and znanieckis (1958 1918-1920) study of polish peasants in europe and america and, the ethnographic work by malinowski (1913) in the trobriand islands in melanesia that spanned over several years (creswell, hanson, plano clark & morales, 2007 johansson, 2003 stewart, 2014). In 2005 the cdc completed a more detailed analysis18 of trends in the u. Ongoing application of and sound debate about the value, validity, and capability of case study research have strengthened the efficacy of case study approaches as powerful forms of qualitative research. As a result, surveys, experiments, and statistical methods anchored in quantitative approaches were favored and considered more rigorous than qualitative designs (johansson, 2003) Buy now Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research

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    Still, this is too small a change in sex ratio to be distinguished among other potential causes for the population at large. Similar to stake (1995, 2006), merriam (1998, 2009) was not as structured in her approach as yin (2014), but promoted the use of a theoretical framework or research questions to guide the case study and organized, systematic data collection to manage the process of inquiry. However, it is the product of a limited survey by an organization with a stated objective of advocating unlimited access to abortion services. Mcmahon reported that for about 2,000-2,100 pbas he had performed, 1,183 (56) were for fetal flaws or indicators, 175 (9) were for maternal indicators, and the remainder (about 700, or 35) were elective Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research Buy now

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    How the methods are used will vary and depend on the research purpose and design, which is often a variation of a single or multiple case study research design. Thus it is reasonable to conclude that, contrary to agi figures, the fraction of abortions nationwide in cases of rape is closer to 0. Available information on reasons for abortion are generally self-reported by the abortion seeker and thus not verifiable. Similar to stake (1995, 2006), merriam (1998, 2009) was not as structured in her approach as yin (2014), but promoted the use of a theoretical framework or research questions to guide the case study and organized, systematic data collection to manage the process of inquiry. Quantitative and qualitative perspectives, alan guttmacher institute, april 2005, induced abortion in the united states, based on figure of 1,559,100 abortions in 1987, from henshaw, stanley k Buy Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research at a discount

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    Alternately, some women might falsely claim rape as a reason, for example to obtain funding for an abortion (this appears to be an issue with federally funded abortions as discussed below). Like yin (2014), merriam (1998, 2009) asserts that when information is plentiful and concepts abstract, it is important to utilize processes that help interpret, sort, and manage information and that adapt findings to convey clarity and applicability to the results. This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach. Mcmahon further indicated that elective abortions comprised 20 of those he performed after 21 weeks gestation, and none of those he performed after 26 weeks Buy Online Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research

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    Her research interests are primary health care, public health and health systems strengthening. Her research interests are in the areas of accessibility, innovation, relevance and quality in nursing education. Stewart and trussell extrapolate this to 25,000 per year in 1998 merely by considering lower crime rates. These figures are self-reported by women obtaining abortions, as in the case of the agi studies discussed above. Central to these variations is the underpinning ontological and epistemological orientations of those involved in the evolution of case study research.

    April 2007, data on partial-birth abortion in the united states, division of reproductive health, centers for disease control and prevention, , assisted reproductive technology (art), cdc, on line httpwww Buy Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research Online at a discount

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    Partial-birth abortion roughly corresponding to what the medical community describes as intact dilation and extraction. These figures are self-reported by women obtaining abortions, as in the case of the agi studies discussed above. Case study research can be used to study a range of topics and purposes (simons, 2009 stake, 2006 stewart, 2014) however, the essential requisite for employing case study stems from ones motivation to illuminate understanding of complex phenomena (merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 yin, 2014). As a result, some case study approaches are either quantitatively or qualitatively orientated while others encompass both qualitative and quantitative aims and methods (merriam, 2009 miles, huberman & saldana, 2014 yin, 2014) Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research For Sale

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    Yin suggests careful screening in the selection of cases to ensure specific relevance to the issues of interest and the use of replication logic cases are chosen to produce anticipated contrasting findings (theoretical replication) or similar findings (literal replication). Available information on reasons for abortion are generally self-reported by the abortion seeker and thus not verifiable. For example, yin (2014) discusses case study research and in the context of presenting case study, refers to it as a research method while emphasizing the procedures used. For cases of threat to the mothers life, despite the factor of 7 range in state-level percentages among the three states, the derived national estimates are quite consistent, in the range 0 For Sale Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research

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    Most americans would oppose banning abortions for hard cases, but at the same time most americans would support limits on elective abortions, e. Denzin and lincoln (2011) emphasize the qualitative essence of case study, while acknowledging its evolution and fluidity with regard to accommodating varied ontologies, epistemologies, methodologies, and methods. Another agi study5, conducted in 2000-2001, examined contraceptive use but provides some information relating to reasons for abortion. According to the fbi, reported annual numbers of forcible rapes in the united states rose from about 90,000 in the mid 1980s to a peak of 109,062 in 1992, then dropped to about 89,000-95,000 for the years 1998-2009 and to 84,767 in 2010 9 Sale Stake Robert 1995 . The Art Of Case Study Research

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